Kerisma – Understanding Women GYN
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Glossary


Anterior colporrhaphy
A vaginal procedure to reestablish the support between the bladder and vagina to fix a cystocele. A synthetic mesh or organic graft material made be placed to reinforce this repair to avoid recurrence
Atrophy
thinning and atrophy of the vaginal epithelium, usually resulting from diminished estrogen. A common occurrence in postmenopausal women that can accentuate incontinence or prolapse or cause dry tissue that splits bleeds becomes raw and uncomfortable and if sexually active, painful intercourse
Bladder
The muscular organ that stores urine
Biofeedback
This term refers to a variety of techniques that teach patients bladder and pelvic muscle control by giving positive feedback when the patient performs the desired action. This feedback is directly from a health professional.
Bladder Training
This treatment for urge incontinence involves teaching a patient to urinate according to a timetable rather than an urge to do so. Gradually, the scheduled time between trips to the bathroom is increased as the patient's bladder control improves.
The Bladder Diet
This is a list of dietary irritants to the bladder. Avoiding the items on this list can greatly improve such bladder symptoms as frequency and urgency.
Constipation
Variously defined as infrequent bowel movements (< 3 bowel movements per week), incomplete emptying of bowel contents, need to excessively strain to effect a bowel movement, passage of small, hard stools, or need to place your fingers in the vagina or the space between the vagina and anus to effect a bowel movement.
Cystocele
Prolapse or bulging of the bladder into the vagina due to weakness or defect
Cystoscopy
A simple procedure that involves inspecting the inside of the bladder using a lighted scope.
Detrusor Muscle
The muscle of the urinary bladder, which, along with increased intraabdominal pressure, facilitates emptying of bladder during voiding by its contraction.
Dysuria
Painful urination
Fecal Incontinence<br> Accidental loss of stool
Frequency
The need to urinate more often than normal (more than every 2 hours or more than 7 times a day)
Kegel's
Also known as pelvic muscle exercises, they strengthen the support of the pelvic organs and are most commonly used to treat stress urinary incontinence. PME techniques are also useful in prolapse prevention. Once the symptoms of prolapse are severe, however, these exercises are of little benefit.
Interstitial Cystitis
a chronic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology involving the epithelium and muscularis of the bladder, resulting in reduced bladder capacity, pain relieved by voiding, and severe bladder irritative symptoms. Can easily be diagnosed in the office setting.
Medications
There are a number of drugs that are used in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Commonly prescribed drugs are Detrol, Ditropan, Veiscare and Sanctura, to name a few
Mixed Incontinence
Neuromodulation
This is a comprehensive approach in the treatment of the overactive bladder, urinary retention and urinary frequency. Electrodes are surgically inserted under the skin near the nerves that control the bladder.
Nocturia
Waking up frequently (more than once) during the night due to urgency or to urinate
Overlapping anal sphincteroplasty
Reattach divided muscle edges around anus to correct fecal incontinence
Occlusive devices
Several types of pessaries are available that are designed specifically for the treatment of stress incontinence. These are especially useful for women who leak urine during specific activities such as exercise. There is also a new device that fits in the urethra and acts like a plug. This device is called FemSoft™.
Overactive Bladder
a bladder dysfunction characterized by urinary frequency, urge incontinence, or both.
Paravaginal repair (vaginal or abdominal approach)
A surgical procedure that supports the vaginal wall by attaching it to the pelvic sidewall to repair a cystocele. A qualified synthetic mesh material may be placed to reinforce this repair and prevent recurrence.
Pelvic floor muscles
The group of muscles in the pelvis that support and control the bladder, rectum, urethra, uterus and vagina.
Pelvic Muscle Strengthening (PMS) aka Pelvic muscle exercises (PME)
Also known as Kegel exercises, PMS techniques are an effective treatment option for stress incontinence when combined with biofeedback. They strengthen the support of the pelvic organs and are also useful in prolapse prevention. Once the symptoms of prolapse are severe, however, these exercises are of little benefit. Most women require guidance from a medical professional to learn how to contract the pelvic floor muscles correctly.
Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulation (PFES)
Vaginal or anal probes that deliver electrical current to the pelvic floor may be useful in the treatment of urge and mixed incontinence.
Periurethral injections
Injection of material next to the opening of the bladder to correct a weak sphincter or intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Usually has to be redone periodically.
Pessary
A device worn in the vagina like a diaphragm. Pessaries are used to support the vagina, bladder, rectum and uterus as necessary or correct displacement. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, so a doctor or nurse must fit them.
Posterior colporrhaphy
A vaginal procedure to reestablish the support between the vagina and rectum to fix a rectocele. A qualified synthetic mesh material may be placed to reinforce this repair to prevent recurrence.
Rectocele
Prolapse or bulging of the rectum into the vagina
Sacral colpopexy
A procedure (performed abdominally or laparoscopically) that attaches the top of the prolapsed vagina to the sacrum using either synthetic mesh or cadaveric material.
Splinting
Need to place your fingers in the vagina or the space between the vagina and anus to effect a bowel movement.
Stress incontinence
Involuntary loss of urine during activities that put "stress" on the bladder such as laughing, coughing, sneezing, lifting, etc.
Suburethral sling
Placing a "strap" of material under the urethra to support it and prevent stress incontinence. The sling material is usually synthetic for best results.
Urge incontinence
An involuntary loss of urine preceded by a strong urge (also known as "overactive bladder")
Total abdominal hysterectomy (with or without bilateral salpingo/oophorectomy)
Removal of the uterus (including the cervix), tubes and ovaries through an abdominal incision.
Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy
Removal of the uterus (including the cervix) and possibly the tubes and ovaries through a laparoscopic approach
Total vaginal hysterectomy (with or without bilateral salpingo/oophorectomy)
Removal of the uterus (including the cervix), tubes and ovaries through a vaginal incision
Urgency
A powerful need to urinate immediately
Urinary incontinence
Leakage of urine
Uterine prolapse
Prolapse or descent of the uterus into the vagina
Urodynamics
A comprehensive diagnostic test that uses a small catheter inserted in the bladder to study the function of the bladder and urethra during filling, leakage and urinating
Urinalysis
A test that evaluates chemicals and cells in the urine
Urine culture
A test that determines whether a urinary tract infection (UTI) is present
Ureters
The pair of tubes, each leading from one of the kidneys, to the bladder
Urethra
The short tube that carries urine out of the body.
Voiding
Passage of urine out of the body

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Kerisma – Understanding Women GYN | 10255 N. 32nd Street | Phoenix, AZ 85028 | Phone: (602) 393-0661